IBI Watch 3/3/13

3 03 2013

Calling All Trouble Makers //

Sure, as the old song says, more “love sweet love” would be nice. But what the world really needs now is more trouble makers of a certain kind. On this week’s Moyers and Company, we meet two such contributors from different generations.

First, another example of why I hold out so much hope for the younger generation’s opposition to pignorance (pretend ignorance). Here is a young man who has already contributed mightily to the cause of science and thought in his home state of Louisiana. Advocate Zack Kopplin is a 19-year-old warrior against, as the episode’s title states, “creeping creationism.” He is also putting a scare into the creationism creeps, apparently. He’s the first winner of a new award for young upstarts, the Trouble Maker of the Year. Here is hoping this lad has many more years of trouble to come.

Moyers’ other guest is an author I have featured before – Susan Jacoby. Here is a recent post where I talked about her newest book about influential 19th-century freethinker Robert Ingersoll. (See the lead story, “The Land of Make Believe.”) I can recommend an earlier book by this tireless advocate of freedom from dogma-tainted policy – The Age of American Unreason

We need thinkers and activists like Kopplin and Jacoby more than ever. Want proof? Try this story linking a certain news network with pignorance around tobacco and climate change. Or maybe this piece on how three states are pushing a poison cookie-cutter bill from our friends at ALEC on teaching pignorance in public schools is more to your liking. Wait until you see the Orwellian name for this stupidity campaign.

Snoozing or Shocking?

The news is full of sequestration frustration – so much so that we have tired of this seemingly boring story. Yes, the gridlock in Washington right now is the consequence of two opposing political philosophies, compounded by the fact that one of the parties has eliminated the word “compromise” from its vocabulary. But I sense something more sinister, and I am not alone.

After last fall’s election, I had to laugh when I heard positive spinners speculate on the demise of the government-hating Tea Party. Here is one example.  The Republican warriors in the House – they who stand firm and are currently allowing formulaic budget cuts to take effect (hoping blame the president of course) – are actually a majority/minority party. How so? This Mother Jones article explains the gerrymandering that yields a House strongly in Republican hands, despite compiled popular votes for the other party.  In other words, people demonstrably did not vote for the GOP approach. And this David Horsey column in the Los Angeles Times explains how the sequester actually plays into the government-haters’ hands. Now consider that the Tea Party, often portrayed in the media as some sort of populist uprising, is really anything but.

I think former Labor Secretary Robert Reich gets it right with this post. And Walter Hickey of Business Insider also lays out the series of clashes that lie just ahead.

My opinion – this is just the most recent, and one of the most extreme and consequential – example of the Naomi Klein’s Shock Doctrine. In short, her thesis is this – corporate interests use crises, real or manufactured, to cripple the government and destroy the public sector, which must then be “rescued” by corporate interests which take over what used to be run by the government.

So we have a government paralyzed by obstinacy from a majority/minority party completely in the thrall of an unelected power-monger.

What is the solution? Who knows? But I do know this – meaningful progress on behalf of the common good will not happen until we get the big corporate dollars out of elections. Here are several worthy groups pursuing that laudable goal:

Climate Sell-Out Looms – Unless We Act

I hate to admit it, but the stars are lining up for accelerating climate destabilization. You can just sense the rationalizations for approving the Keystone XL pipeline. It looks like the State Department environmental impact statement will give its qualified blessing. Though that report is not yet public, it is already generating controversy and anger. And that comes after Nebraska’s governor altered the route to eliminate the Ogallala Aquifer issue from the mix. And all this will mix with the usual self-absolving blather about “energy independence,” “we need to help our ally – Canada,” “if we don’t get that oil, the Chinese will,” and on and on along the road to environmental hell.

There are many reasons not to approve, and not just the 40,000 protesters who let their opinions be known in Washington two weeks ago. NASA’s James Hansen has long articulated the case. And Bill McKibben has dedicated his 350.org movement to the cause.

Of course, all those reasons are up against the most powerful one – money. But it is too early to give up the fight. These folks certainly have not.

The “Grand” Experiment Continues

Here are this week’s examples of why climate action is imperative. Check this Global Possibilities page for an eye-catching vertical info-graphic that is full of climate change facts. We often hear how it is “too expensive” to deal with climate change. This article points out the toll of not dealing with it. This 90-second video explains the melting permafrost threat. For more depth on the same topic, look to New Scientist. And finally, if you think King Tides are some kind of surfers’ heaven, think again.

Of Horses and Space Chaos

The Daily Show’s Jon Stewart had too much fun with two recent news stories. Warning: it is strongly suggested that you put down any hot or fizzy beverages you might be drinking before watching these videos, particularly the Russian videos of the meteor explosion. First-here is Stewart’s take on the ongoing horsemeat caper. And second – these videos shot from Chelyabinsk dashboards would give any outrageous Hollywood action film a run for its money. Remember – you stand warned.

Think Green and Early

If we are to have any hope of saving this broken place we call home, we need to encourage young people to think environmentally. Here is a thoughtful list of books to help in that quest. It includes many personal favorites, such as Shel Silverstein’s The Giving Tree.

“I doubt that most people with short-term thinking love the natural world enough to save it.” – E. O. Wilson

Contributed links to this posting – Allyson Harper, Brendan Murphy, Edrichus Sykes

 

Blogger – Michael Murphy, St. Paul MN

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IBI Watch 2/24/13

24 02 2013

What’s the Beef?  //

A meat caper boils in Europe right now. Two issues emerge. First, is it OK to eat our whinnying friends? Second, if a processed meat product is labeled “beef,” isn’t that what should be inside?

This update on the bait-and-switch horsemeat scandal explains how things got mixed up. It’s a safe bet that many a burger eater across America takes comfort in the thought that nothing horsey could ever make its way into a Big Mac. Maybe. But this affair got me thinking on other meaty issues – such as health. Human and planetary.

In a case of curious timing, the horsemeat kerfuffle coincides with a grim anniversary – the deaths of several Americans in 1993, from eating fast food burgers, and in one case, simply from sharing day care space with another youngster who had. NPR ran a cover story on 2/17 updating the meat safety situation. The story goes into real improvements (including the abandonment of the “dime standard”) in the safety of the meat supply that took effect after the 1993 deaths. But problems continue, as this story of a paralyzed dancer in Minnesota from just a few years ago attests.

Taking the health picture a step further, new studies are providing more evidence that eating more than a little red meat poses serious risks. Would you like some cancer with that everyday red meat?

So eating too much meat is not good for you. And as those charts show, many seem to be getting that message.  And that’s a good thing, though the change is far short of what is needed. Why? The total impact on the planet of a single quarter-pound hamburger is a little hard to grasp. This NPR story and accompanying graphics tells the surprising tale.

It has dawned on activists and others in recent years that one of the most effective things a person can do to help slow and reverse climate change is also one of the easiest – eat less meat. And as Michael Pollan points out, this does not necessarily mean banishing meat, but rather cutting consumption and making sure what you do eat comes from sustainable sources – i.e., no factory farms.

Though I have read several of Pollan’s books – which I strongly recommend – it was another book that scared me away from factory meat for good. This one. Take in that book or its documentary follow-up or watch the better-known Supersize Me and you too can learn about how those lip-smacking modern factory burgers are made, or the manufacturing process that produces those alleged chicken nuggets.

Do one of those things and, chances are, you will join me and many others on the outside of the fast-food meat industry.  We have nothing to lose but excess fat and carbon footprints.

Preparing for the Bath

Marketplace Morning Edition host Kai Ryssdal has been railing against what is really a stupid term – “sequester.” That term of course is all over the airwaves, since the latest manufactured Washington financial crisis is about to crest. Paul Krugman sees yet another example of false equivalence – that is, it is extremists on both the Republican and Democratic side that keep common sense and compromise from solving dilemmas.

And the Nobel economist has a good point. The Republicans are demanding an “all-cuts” outcome, while Democrats are pushing a combination of spending cuts and tax increases. I say this. Remember that nearly every Republican in Congress signed a pledge of fealty to that government-despising unelected power monger known as Grover Norquist. What if he and his vassals mean what they say?

Two authors have insights that explain the context of this sequester showdown. First, Richard Wolff sees the crisis as a tool for plutocrats to widen the divide between the rich and powerful on the one hand and everybody else on the other. He appeared on Moyers and Company this week. And of course Wolff’s take brings to mind Naomi Klein’s Shock Doctrine – a book I recommend in the strongest terms. Both authors make powerful arguments for changing our system. (If you watch the Moyers installment, be sure to stay for the short piece that follows the Wolff visit. It features the work of Saru Jayaraman, who has dedicated herself to securing a fair shake for the legions of sickeningly low-paid restaurant workers.)

Climate Paradoxes

If we could collect a dollar for every time someone declared that the latest blizzard proved that climate change was not happening, we would have a sizable fund to spend wisely – maybe on alternative energy. And in a popular, uninformed way, this line of thought seems to make sense. After all, they call this “global warming,” right?

This Yahoo news site article does a nice job explaining why that reflexive take is so wrong. It is anything but simple, and yet – this sentence sums things up nicely: a warmer atmosphere can hold more water, which fuels storms year round – including snowstorms.  But overall less snow, with more frequent big snow dumps? By all means. I like this quote:  “Strong snowstorms thrive on the ragged edge of temperature — warm enough for the air to hold lots of moisture, meaning lots of precipitation, but just cold enough for it to fall as snow,” said Mark Serreze, director of the National Snow and Ice Data Center. “Increasingly, it seems that we’re on that ragged edge.”

This article is good enough to warrant quoting at a bit more length – three bullet points in fact:

  • The United States has been walloped by twice as many of the most extreme snowstorms in the past 50 years than in the previous 60 years, according to an upcoming study on extreme weather by leading federal and university climate scientists. This also fits with a dramatic upward trend in extreme winter precipitation — both rain and snow — in the Northeastern U.S. charted by the National Climatic Data Center.
  • Yet the Global Snow Lab at Rutgers University says spring snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has shrunk on average by 1 million square miles in the past 45 years.
  • And an upcoming study in the Journal of Climate says computer models predict annual global snowfall to shrink by more than a foot in the next 50 years. The study’s author said most people live in parts of the United States that are likely to see annual snowfall drop between 30 percent and 70 percent by the end of the century.

Climate Actions

Fortunately, more people are learning the seriousness of the climate crisis and the imperative that we enact sensible policies to move us toward sustainability. Some are in positions of power. Just look how Ed Davey, Britain’s Secretary of State for Energy & Climate Change, describes climate deniers. Hey – maybe we can hire this guy.

And forget the conventional “wisdom” on snow and warming. Get the facts. This new site – created by Peter Carter – is full of charts that tell many angles on the story of how we are altering the atmosphere and the climate. His Climate Change Index site illustrates land temperatures, Arctic sea ice, atmospheric methane, and much more.

And finally, kudos to the 40,000 citizens who marched in Washington last weekend. I wish I had been there. Their goal – stop the approval and construction of the Keystone XL pipeline – which will accelerate the destruction of a swath of Alberta’s boreal forest and – more important – rapidly advance our transformation of the world’s climate with our greenhouse gases.

The World Still Surprises

In the run-up to President W’s invasion of Iraq, then Secretary of State Colin Powell said, “If you break it, you own it.” Such is our relationship with the natural world. And yet, we still have so much to learn from the parts we have not destroyed or dramatically altered. Here are three interesting stories. First – news of a newly discovered owl species in Indonesia. Hope the little guy survives the palm oil boom. Next, who could have predicted this secret about bumblebees? Too bad that zap does not seem to fight Colony Collapse Disorder. And finally – shark finning has long been a cruel practice that has pushed many of these essential predators of the ocean to the brink of extinction. A new project matching human beauty and grace to that of whale sharks is calling attention to the practice and – we hope – will lead to its end.

Mother Nature is Keeping the Focus on Climate Change

Guest blogger Rolly Montpellier – http://www.boomerwarrior.org – suggests that 2013 could be a breakthrough year in public awareness and action on climate change.

“If we are going to start calling industrial corn sustainable, then we might as well say that petroleum is a renewable resource if you’re willing to wait long enough.”
Catherine Friend

Contributed links or content to this posting – Allyson Harper, Rolly Montepellier

 

Blogger – Michael Murphy, St. Paul MN





IBI Watch 2/3/13

3 02 2013

The Final Parallel, Please  //

Tobacco and fossil-fueled energy have curious parallels. Both have provided users with benefits, both got entrenched in behavior and society, both have grievous unintended consequences. But the story of one is more resolved, to a point.

Back in the day in America, virtually everyone smoked, or so it seemed. Ads that look outrageous, even hilarious today – try this “scientific” one and this endorsement by doctors – sold cigarettes as keys to the good life, even good health. And no question – there were benefits. I remember trying them as a teenager, and feeling that intense nicotine rush. (It was a brief fling.)

But even during the well-documented cover-up by tobacco companies of the health risks, the evidence was right there in the ads. Check these for examples of “protesting too much.” “Camels agree with your throat.” “Nose, throat, and accessory organs not adversely affected by smoking Chesterfields.” “Medical authorities recognize Phillip Morris proved less irritating to the smoker’s nose and throat.” Uh huh.

Fast-forward to today. Smoking bans make it harder and harder to puff in public. And the habit hits the wallet harder and harder. Check the taxes per pack by state. Makes me glad not to be a smoker, especially in my native state of New York. Though the revenue from these taxes goes to various purposes, the logic is clear – put a cost on a product which creates costs to the user and to society generally. But this is where the parallel histories of cigarettes and fossil-fueled energy diverge.

The benefits of fossil fuels are so massive they are hard to quantify. Cheap coal and natural gas have fueled the rapid growth of population and cities. Plentiful oil has powered our cars, trucks and airplanes for decades. And in ways most of us don’t realize, our entire food system is oil-powered. According to author Michael Pollan, when you tally up oil-based agricultural chemicals, plus all the fuel used in production and transport, it takes ten calories of fossil energy to produce each calorie of food we consume. So you might say that our whole society is built on fossil fuel – in a real sense, we eat oil.

Just like with cigarettes, the dark side of fossil fuel burning has gradually come into view. And just as reliably, the people amassing fortunes purveying the offending products are not at all happy with the science – in this case the science of how greenhouse gases are changing the atmosphere and the climate. The predictable action – still playing our today – is to “teach the controversy” and paralyze policy supporting the common good.  Read about the whole denial-pushing cabal right here in this resourceful  Media Matters blog post. Former Vice President Al Gore also makes the tobacco/fossil fuel connection in recent comments on video here.

Higher tobacco taxes have been one factor in reducing smoking rates. And that points to the way this parallel story needs to play out, and not over decades. We have summoned the political courage to charge some of the cost of tobacco use – both to users and society.  Isn’t it time we do the same with the cost of fossil fuel use? Cap and trade has been a failure. But putting a price on carbon – either through a tax or through James Hansen’s “fee and dividend” plan is the only way to keep our fossil fuel addiction from ultimately becoming a suicidal pursuit.

And the discussion is proceeding – in Australia, recent site of unprecedented heat so intense they needed to add new weather map colors, at NASA meteorologist James Hansen’s blog, and even, of all places (Grover Norquist and James Inhofe aside), in the Republican Party.

As long as we continue to ignore and externalize the cost of fossil-fuel pollution, we are behaving in a way satirized brilliantly in this Saturday Night Live video.  We can and must do better. Here are two organizations working for rational carbon pollution policy – the Citizens Climate Lobby and the Carbon Tax Center.

 

Sensible Policy from the Barrel of a Gun

Why – for so many of us – does it take immediate exposure to the dangers of gun violence to build commitment to rational gun laws? Think James Brady, Ronald Reagan, Mark Kelly and now these doctors from Sandy Hook.  This past week, former Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords provided brave testimony in favor of gun regulation. Here is the handwritten version. And here is the video. Now watch the diversionary pro-gun propaganda delivered at the same hearing from the chief lobbyist for the gun industry, Wayne LaPierre.  He has supported enhanced school security, not necessarily a bad idea. He has also suggested that arming teachers – think Rambo at the blackboard – also can help. Here is what one prominent St. Paul teacher has to say about that on her blog.

As usual, satire cuts through the baloney. First – how different is LaPierre’s approach from this Tom Tomorrow character? Second, hats off yet again to Jon Stewart. He has once again discovered a current right-wing radical debating a more rational opponent. That is, his former less extreme self from a decade or so ago. Senator Grassley gets a howler award here as well, folks – discredit where discredit is due.

I like this mayors’ organization fighting for the cause. I also love the fact that this group – led by NYC Mayor Michael Bloomberg – is slated to run an ad favoring sensible gun regulation at the Super Bowl.

 

Dream On

George Carlin said “they call it the American Dream because you have to be asleep to believe it.” Star Tribune columnist Bonnie Blodgett wrote a thoughtful commentary recently that packs so many issues into a short Sunday column. Pay inequity, unfettered growth, our switch to a “me first” ethos, it is all here and very thought-provoking. A fitting examination of the complicated, elusive American Dream. And the parting shot reminds us of the legacy of our creeping embrace of “every-man-for-himself.” We are in the horse race now for the most unequal society in the world. How is that for “American Exceptionalism?”

 

The Growth Affliction

A promising new book has hit my reading list. This Excerpt from Enough is Enough suggests that authors Rob Dietz and Dan O’Neill will tread where few sustainability activists dare – fingering unfettered population growth as the root cause of environmental ills. This also made me think of Dave Gardner, director of an informative documentary, Growthbusters. Watch the trailer here, and read a short article by the director right here.

 

Common Sense Revolution

In this guest post, Ottawa’s Rolly Montpellier brings the wisdom of that great 18th-century thinker, Thomas Paine, to bear on our modern climate crisis. Recommended.

Rolly blogs at the Boomer Warrior.

 

Light in the Darkness

One of the things that strikes a city kid like me when spending a night far from the city is just how much you can see in the night sky. Light pollution has been growing for decades, and as a result, most city dwellers have no idea what is up there. Some speculate this reinforces our view of humans as separate from the natural world. With our ongoing destruction of natural habitats, more separation from nature is exactly what is not needed. That need to connect is behind the work of photographer Thierry Cohen. In this slide show, Cohen shows what could be seen with light pollution under control in eleven major world cities from New York to Hong Kong. Magical.

 

“We have it in our power to begin the world over again.”

― Thomas Paine

 

Contributed links or content to this posting – Allyson Harper, Rolly Montpellier, Brendan Murphy

 

Blogger – Michael Murphy, St. Paul MN





IBI Watch 12/23/12

23 12 2012

The One or the Many  //

So many issues come down to this question. Where does the free exercise of individual rights end, and the right of the general public not to be harmed by the exercise of those individual rights prevail? And that means not just the individual citizen, but also the individual corporation. After all, Mitt Romney taught us that “corporations are people.”

Here are three issues very much in the news right now where that question is paramount:

  • Gun Violence
  • Climate Change
  • The “Fiscal Cliff”

Tragedy’s Answer? More Guns, of Course

It is hard not to be moved by the scenes and sounds of the aftermath of the dreadful Newtown CT mass murders. But moved to pity is one thing; moved to action is quite another. And there have been hints of legislators considering action to deal with the easy access in America to the deadliest of semiautomatic weapons with their capability of firing so many times in such short intervals. And certain legislators – including some staunch NRA supporters – are considering action to restrict access to the most dangerous weapons. That CNN mentioned that the NRA had been silent for a time after the latest massacre. That silence ended with a speech by NRA leader Wayne LaPierre. That speech had been hyped by the organization as offering “constructive measures.”

But anyone expecting something other than the usual prescription – more “guns in the hands of good guys” – was quickly disappointed. Watch LaPierre’s speech here. It is a masterful presentation of the NRA and gun owners as the “real” victims. It is also surreal. See how he completely ignores the protester, who got her message onto  camera briefly: “The NRA has blood on its hands.”

If a few of LaPierre’s assertions seemed odd to you, there is good reason.  Media Matters took up the task of fact-checking the NRA leader.  Here is what they came up with.

  • Gun-Free Areas Do Not Lead To Increased Gun Violence
  • School Shootings Occur In Spite Of Armed Security Presence
  • LaPierre Distorted The Obama Administration’s Position On School Safety
  • LaPierre Made Unscientific Claims About The Link Between Video Games And Homicide

And finally, he did not mention this inconvenient truth:

There is, however, a provable link between firearm availability and homicide.

That Kopel interview and the Harvard research mentioned other countries in addition to the US. These charts from the Washington Post show the stark difference between the US and other countries. A fine example of “American exceptionalism,” I guess. And LaPierre also mischaracterizes the military nature of semiautomatic weapons, when he lampoons the tendency of some to suggest they are “machine guns.” For more depth on this point, and so much more, I strongly recommend a show Terry Gross’s Fresh Air ran last week. Her guest, Tom Diaz, is author of a new book that is on my reading list The Last Gun. Note that the author is himself a former gun enthusiast and NRA member. I like the book’s subtitle: How Changes in the Gun Industry Are Killing Americans and What It Will Take to Stop It. Indeed.

The struggle between the individual right to bear arms – not seriously threatened in any way – and the public’s right to safety from the devastating effects of the most powerful weapons is clear. But this is also a struggle between the rights of corporations and the public. That’s one of the points of this EJ Dionne piece on the all-powerful gun lobby. In that Dionne piece, take a look at the prominent names on the NRA board. Who knew? And I thought Grover Norquist was a one-issue bathtub expert.

In the height of perversion, the Newtown tragedy has triggered a major boost in weapon sales, and, naturally, profits. But there is hope. Here is a story about a major investment company getting out of the weapons business.

Now is the time to call legislators and make your opinions known. I have been contacting other people’s legislators. Thanks to redistricting, I am now represented by John Kline, who is just as staunch a right-wing ideologue as Michele Bachmann – without the comedy.

If you follow only one link in this story, make it this one. As usual, Bill Moyers has the right idea. Remember the victims. And do our damnedest not to let others join them.

Climate Consequences for All

I just mentioned the famous princess of pignorance (pretend ignorance), Congresswoman Michele Bachmann, and with good reason. Her reputation for spouting hogwash on climate science netted her a cameo in this brilliant five-minute video hosted by Bill Nye. (Best moment? Bill unplugs Michele!) The video, produced by the Climate Reality Project, includes a lab experiment and excellent graphics and animations.

The individual/public tension on this issue starts with the “right” to deny reality, to ignore scientific facts, and thereby to be complicit in the inertia that stymies sustainable energy and climate policy. That gets harder to do all the time, though some persist, and some will carry their ignorance (or pignorance as the case may be) to the end of their days. Here is just one illustration of why it’s so hard to be a denialist – a seven- minute video in which eight climate scientists present some of the latest evidence from all over the world.  Note – this Peter Sinclair video is NOT just talking heads.

And of course there are entire national governments acting against the public interest, motivated by desire to cater to the oligarchs who bankroll them. The US government has been the lapdog of the fossil fuel industry for a long time. But don’t think we are unique here in America. Canada’s mad rush to exploit and profit from the environmentally disastrous tar sands oil has motivated an attack on science that rivals the best that our W administration dished out. See if you don’t agree after watching this video interview.

Some people are beyond persuasion. For some, it is an extreme ideology. Senator James Inhofe (the brilliant “greatest hoax” thinker) springs to mind. Getting the Oklahoma senator to respect climate science would be akin to Wayne LaPierre to embrace a ban on large ammunition clips. But for some, it is just another conspiracy theory. That’s right, researchers have come to the shocking conclusion that denying climate science correlates with believing in alien abductions.

But there is a crowd of people in the middle, not committed ideologically to denial. That is the message of this David Roberts article that appeared on the Grist site. And more to that point, how about a sociological look at climate change and its perception by the public? And coming out of that story, here is a nine-page booklet with the promising title Debunking Handbook. There is much bunk to be debunked – this sure looks like it can help.

That’s Not Tea, It’s Kool-Aid

100-proof Kool-Aid, at least. House Speaker John Boehner actually moved toward a compromise. After months of refusing to brook any idea of restoring taxes on big earners, he put together a Plan B that raised rates on those earning over $1,000,000. Not quite what President Obama was looking for in a “fiscal cliff” plan, but it was progress.

The permanent right of certain individuals – namely the highest earners – to the historically low taxes instituted by the W administration was clearly in jeopardy. And then the fun began. I like the way Paul Krugman tells this story of ideological extremism. Salon’s Steve Kornacki suggests this could be the last time the three-cornered hats pull the rug out from under the speaker. Maybe. Steven Rosenfeld also sees a grim future for Boehner. Here is hoping that President Obama does not take a bad deal for the American people. No deal at all might be better.

Atlas Shrugs on the Water

I heard about this story from Wait Wait Don’t Tell Me. Bright side? A little less light pollution.  Wait, maybe that’s the dark side.

Baaa-Studs on the Hill

Here is a special sort of holiday lighting. LED sheep. An old favorite. And the border collies would never go on strike.

“Put on a sweater.”

― Jimmy Carter

Contributed links and/or content to this posting – Bonnie Blodgett, Allyson Harper, Brendan Murphy

 

Blogger – Michael Murphy, St. Paul MN