IBI Watch 12/22/13

22 12 2013

The True Universal Language  //

A friend mentioned Esperanto the other day. Now that is something I had not thought of for a long time – the well-intentioned but largely futile effort to create an artificial but logical, easily learned tongue that aspired to be everyone’s second language.  Esperanto has not caught on widely, and that is a shame. But no matter. Another language is universally recognized, and it really gets results. . . or could anyway. Let’s look at a couple of examples.

First – what to make of the mass release of political prisoners in Russia this week? President Vladimir Putin (aka Vlad the En-Jailer) summarily liberated a virtual crowd of captives – ex-oligarch and rival Mikhail Khodorkovsky, the protesting punk group Pussy Riot, and the Greenpeace 30 protesters. So what’s going on? Is Putin finally morphing into the “good man” into whose soul our insightful ex-president George W peered? The easy answer is that Russia wants a cleaner image for the upcoming Sochi Winter Olympics. But it is really the universal language at work. Positive image, more happy, well-heeled visitors, more money filling the Olympic coffers. Isn’t it nice when that universal language – cash – can deliver desired results? Think about it – all the various reasons Russia held this diverse crowd melted away when lucre loomed. Russia has another Olympic controversy to tame – its stern and hostile approach to gays – but that is another story for another time.

Second – North Dakota is experiencing an orgy of oil revenue. New, unconventional drilling techniques including horizontal exploration and of course fracking have unleashed a gusher of huge proportions. Investments are leading to piles of fast cash. In other words, money in but lots more money out. But the benefits bring challenges, some of them detailed in that MSN piece, some not. For instance, we have to ask if we have learned a damned thing from previous boom and bust cycles, especially when it comes to the environment. Just read this NY Times piece by Clifford Krauss, on efforts to manage the inevitable byproduct of all this oil exploitation – “waste” natural gas. Perusing those statistics about how much good could come from using that byproduct to heat homes and businesses provides the answer – not a damned thing. The rush for the quick money means grab the oil, fast, and do not be deliberate about capturing the gas byproduct. Let it burn aimlessly, producing harmful greenhouse gas emissions – just the cost of progress I guess.

Yes, I know it is a bit of a stretch to talk about money as a universal language. But I ask this – if money has the power to make Strongman Putin go all soft on his most prominent political prisoners, what power could it have, with sensible laws and regulations, to build the common good and save our sorry collective keister? What if it were not free to simply vent or flare “byproduct” gas?  What if every bit of carbon produced in oil and coal exploitation were assessed a fee, and the revenue used to create sustainability?  Would we be wantonly adding to the burden that we put on the already taxed atmosphere every day (90 million tons of carbon dioxide daily, but who is counting?) if producers were paying that fee for all the carbon? Of course not. We would be building the needed infrastructure in a hurry, in order to keep the oil and the oil cash flowing until renewables completely took over. Now that would be using money to produce results that benefit all.

There is a way to get those big benefits from the universal language of cash – make carbon pay its way. That’s just what Citizens Climate Lobby dedicates itself to. Read more about the carbon fee and dividend. And it is not just the carbon fee. How about saving waste heat? We need these ideas and so many more, before it is too late.

 

Too Late Already?

A growing chorus of scientists add up all the evidence and have a single grave conclusion – the human race is toast. This excellent AlterNet story by Dahr Jamail tells the story in articulate detail.  They may be right, but we really have not begun to fight. It is always a good time to cut through the pignorance (pretend ignorance) and get to purposeful work. And fortunately, many are trying – and there is progress to report.

Want proof that people can “get it” about clean transportation? Here – winter cycling is growing in, of all places, the coldest major metro area in the whole US – my adopted home region. And it regularly dips below zero here, folks. Want solar? We’ve got solar. In the hot desert? No, Iowa. Then there is the big picture – 2013 energy breakthroughs that are other than newfangled ways to get at more and more of the destructive old coal and oil. And what of powering the entire world with solar? How much land would that require? Less than you might think.

Remember Nelson Mandela’s words – “It always seems impossible until it’s done.”

 

Incarceration Nation

I saw this Foreign Policy article, really a thought experiment, in my local newspaper this week. It imagines the outsized percentage of the US population, and the obscene portion of its minority population, as a distinct nation. The online version, of course, has the benefit of many links. This really got me thinking. And then Bill Moyers came along with his interview of lawyer/activist Michelle Alexander on the same topic. Here are facts and figures from the show, and here is the entire interview. Considering the cost, considering the unfairness, considering the wasted lives, you have to ask – Why?

 

Antibacterials Banned; Next up Phantom Plastic

One of the stupidest, but most enticing consumer ideas in modern America has to be the notion that we can make everything so damned squeaky clean that we never pick up any nasty bugs. That’s the idea behind antibacterial soap and its most ubiquitous ingredient, triclosan. That “miracle” substance, linked to health problems and more indirectly to mutant pathogens, will at long last face a sunset, barring lobbying by corporatists and other anti-science stooges. The only question is – what took so long?

So there is the good news. Now look at another issue. We can only hope we wise up faster on this one – minuscule plastic waste from personal care products that is fouling the Great Lakes. If it is all about the humans, then by all means we need do nothing. If we give a damn, then we need to read and act on the story’s punchline – “stop putting it out there.” Should be an easy choice. Learn more. Be sure to scroll down to the imbedded video. And then visit 5Gyres, an excellent site – new to me – dedicated to banning plastic pollution. You might even find a petition or three there, or something more useful – a chance to contribute.

 

Ambassador for Fairness

Billie Jean King is going to Russia with the American delegation to the Olympics. Her tennis glory is long past, but if you wonder about her message, see the note above in the comments about Putin’s Russia. I enjoyed this Scott Simon essay, and I think you will. Recently, I was so impressed with the tennis great’s intelligence, insights and magnanimity to her critics. Those were on display when she was interviewed by Terry Gross on Fresh Air.

 

Altering Earth’s Life Support System – Guest Post by Rolly Montpellier

This week’s guest post offers a concise summary of the state of climate change as reported by IPCC scientists, and discusses an important concept – the world carbon budget. Be sure to check out the excellent imbedded video from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. Toronto’s Rolly Montpellier blogs at the Boomer Warrior site. That site sometimes features my work as well.

 

Threatened Polar Bears – Two Views

It is no secret that the polar bear’s natural world is melting, and the cause is nothing like natural. Here is a story on one result – interspecies mating with grizzlies, to the detriment of both. And here is an iconic, award-winning picture from National Geographic.

 

Climate Change All Over this Land

A friend shared with me this very rich site with abundant maps, links and graphs. From those crazy doomsaying radicals at the US Geological Service.

 

The Year in Extreme Weather Pictures

2013 has been quite a year. Just wait until next.

 

2000-Plus Years of Christmas

If you stay away from the “war” hogwash, you can learn some really interesting things.

 

Holy Sheep

Somehow I can’t resist featuring these guys every holiday season. Don’t know if it is the lights, the tongue-in-cheek delivery or the fact that one of my two dogs is a clever, obsessed, deranged, rescued border collie.

 

A World Worth Imagining and Building

And in pictures. Thank you, John Lennon, and thank you, Pablo Stanley!

 

Happy Christmas, and likewise for all other holidays you may celebrate!

 

“The ultimate test of man’s conscience may be his willingness to sacrifice something today for future generations whose words of thanks will not be heard.” – Gaylord Nelson

 

Contributed links or content to this posting – Bobbie Chong, Allyson Harper, Rolly Montpellier, Tammie Stadt, David Vessel

 

Blogger – Michael Murphy, St. Paul MN





IBI Watch 10/27/13

27 10 2013

A Climate Change Balance Sheet //

There was a time, not long ago, when climate change activists like me expected the rising cost of oil and coal to speed moves toward conservation and alternatives. This was the thesis of the Peak Oil movement – that it would become increasingly difficult to access and exploit remaining fossil fuels, thus making it ever harder to keep burning them for energy and transportation. That was BF (before fracking). (Though I disagree with his assessment of overall risks of exploiting extreme fuels, David Blackmon rightly justly skewers the notion of peak oil in this Forbes commentary.) Also, costs have risen, but all that has done is to make “extreme” fossil fuels economically viable. The result – for now – is business as usual, more or less, with continued overall increase in greenhouse gas emissions. And then there are the climate paybacks.

Since peak oil will not save our bacon, motivation for the essential move toward sustainable energy will have to be financial, a massive cost/benefit analysis. Right now, who is suffering the costs or our addiction to fossil fuel burning? Certainly, indigenous people in the Arctic and on islands threatened by sea rise. But increasingly, “climate justice” of sorts is moving in. The anniversary of Hurricane Sandy is a reminder that storms strengthened by sea rise threaten American cities as well, with New York, Miami and New Orleans the prime targets for now. Also, the Amazon – sometimes called the planet’s lungs – being cut down for cheap wood and endangered by climate change, faces even more serious, costly risk than previously understood. And then there is the ocean, already on course for massive change caused by acidification and warming from our greenhouse emissions. Not to mention burgeoning wildfires, which travel around the world with the warm season.

So the question is – when does all this cost become enough to be widely recognized as more costly than moving to a sustainable energy/climate future?  This won’t be easy, because those reaping the benefits – oil and coal companies and their obedient congressional acolytes – still hold sway. Why else would misinformation continue to thrive on Fox News? And the true costs of dependence on fossil fuels are hidden, imbedded in the system. And for a measure of that control, see this AlterNet expose on the Koch Brothers. You can see more of the same on the horizon. Can you guess which country is trying to slow the process of moving to a new, stronger, greenhouse gas agreement? Of course you could.

If we have any hope of passing on a livable planet to future generations, this can’t continue. Here is a call for “solutions journalism.” And to me, hope lies in part with corporate interests recognizing the folly of wrecking the place, long-term, in the interest of profits. Here is a piece on investors’ doubt in the financial future of Big Hydrocarbons. And insurance companies are beginning to get the message that climate change threatens their business model, big-time. And Bill McKibben is a force to be reckoned with. His 350.org has spearheaded a campaign to help investors large and small divest from Big Oil and Big Coal.

But the best idea out there for hastening the process of internalizing is to build the momentum for a carbon fee and dividend system. This is not the discredited cap and trade idea, but a rational way to nudge the market system toward sustainability by rewarding responsible behavior. One worthy organization working steadily and specifically on that goal is the Citizens’ Climate Lobby. And it would be a far better, more sustainable world if we just followed the punchy slogan at the heart of this Guardian piece.

 

An Unplanned War on Drugs

No one really wants to fight this war, and in fact we don’t like even to admit the war is proceeding. But fight we do, and any one of us could find ourselves in the crosshairs of the resurgent enemy. That may sound like unhinged, extreme fear mongering. But it is an accurate assessment of our increasingly shaky relationship with a whole class of drugs – antibiotics. Accurate because uncontrollable infections affect two million Americans per year, killing 23,000, and solutions elude us.

There is much to learn from a recent Frontline documentary – Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria. The suffering of the people highlighted in the video makes it hard to watch. But I highly recommend it, first because it explains a story we don’t hear nearly enough about, and because it points to societal trends that we must manage if we are to save masses of people from fates like those of the documentary’s unfortunate subjects.

A dark twin of the old adage “use it or lose it” applies here. The video makes clear that when it comes to antibiotics, we “use them and lose them.” That’s because, thanks to evolution, which takes place at warp speed in the microbial world, bacteria are constantly morphing into new forms that challenge our defenses, i.e. the miracle cures of antibiotics. Therefore, the more encounters we arrange, wittingly or not, between the bugs and the drugs, the more we help the bugs get “smarter,” more potent, and maybe invincible. So that is the battle we have conducted since Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin in 1928. And in fact Fleming warned against complacency in using these drugs in his 1945 Nobel Prize speech.

Two recent developments justify Fleming’s concerns. You will learn about them in the video – gram-negative bacteria, which have special, impenetrable defenses against antibiotics, and a special instance of that resistance – klebsiella pneumoniae, called KPC in the Frontline segment.

So, knowing this is unfolding, you would think we would be mounting an effort akin to the moon race to protect the population. You would think wrong. First, research on this shadowy problem is number 70(!) on the priority list cited by a Federal source in the video. Second, if you think government-supported scientific research somehow thrives in this era of partisan showdowns, government loathing and government shutdowns, you are living in another realm. Third, an interesting market- driven phenomenon, also explained by Frontline, plays out here – private research by drug companies is hard for them to justify. Why? Remember – use it and lose it. That is, antibiotics, used properly, are developed, demonstrated to be effective, and then shelved for those instances where they are really needed. That is far removed from “take two pills per day for the next five decades.” That is, maintenance drugs pay long-term profits, but antibiotics just don’t pay back the private developers for their investment. A fine example of where the common good just does not fare well in an unregulated, profit-driven system.

But there is one more piece of this story that the excellent Frontline segment just does not touch. That is this – for all the problems we encourage with misuse of antibiotics in human health care, they pale in comparison to the risks we create with our livestock practices. Here is why – eighty percent of all antibiotics used in the US are used on farms. This would be bad enough if they were used to combat rampant illness. But the main purpose of all this mass feeding of miracle drugs to meat animals is twofold – first, to prevent illness in cheek-by-jowl feedlot confinement, and second, to fatten up Big Piggy or Bossy for market faster. That’s right, we are risking health Armageddon in the name of a cheaper Big Mac. You can learn more about that particular ignorance-based initiative in an excellent interview of David Hoffman (whose work is featured in the Frontline story) done by NPR’s Terry Gross. (And for an in-depth look at the bigger picture of factory farming’s impacts, check this commentary on a new John Hopkins University report.) The entire Fresh Air interview is excellent, but if you want to cut to the chase for a summary of all the issues – medical, feedlot and antibiotic cleansers –  go to 34:00 on that audio segment.

Hoffman promises a follow-up specifically on the feedlot problems, but does not go so much into solutions. Seems to me that common-good solutions are these:

  • Recommitment to government-sponsored research into bacterial resistance
  • Regulation against overuse and misuse of antibiotics in agriculture and consumer products
  • Creative ideas for overcoming the perverse market forces that discourage drug companies from researching and developing new antibiotics

These will not be easy in our corporate-ruled, gerrymandered system, but I see no other way forward.

 

Wealth Gap in Video

The ever-widening gap between the rich and poor, and especially the extremely wealthy and everyone else, is no accident. And it’s not because most of us are just not working hard enough, otherwise we would all be millionaires or even billionaires. It’s the logical result of policy decisions over decades, coupled with market forces. What is tremendously interesting – and – if you are not careful, depressing, is people’s poor understanding of this issue. This six-minute video is an eye-popper. And arguably the most tireless and optimistic teacher on this issue – former Labor Secretary Robert Reich – has a new movie on this crucial issue that I just can’t wait to see.

 

Martians Invade!

Seventy-five years ago on 10/30, the great film director Orson Welles pulled off one of the greatest media hoaxes ever. His War of the Worlds radio broadcast – which was identified at the start as fiction – induced untold panic and mayhem. The prank spun out of control thanks to a variety of coincidences. And the most amazing thing? The phenomenon repeated itself years later, and not just once. Years after the event, Welles said he and his co-conspirators sought to encourage media consumers not to believe everything they hear or see. And yet . . . a case can be made that sensational fear mongering that is the heart of much TV news got its start on that night in the fall of 1938. I strongly encourage you to take in the excellent RadioLab feature on the broadcast and its long legacy.

 

Young Warriors for Social and Environmental Justice

Too many in my generation – the graying Baby Boomers – stereotype our followers, i.e. Generation X and especially the Millennials, as self-absorbed, disengaged texters who never lift their gaze from their IPhones. Here is a gallery of activists who defy that stereotype and offer hope for a sustainable, just future.

 

Awkward

Jon Stewart has done it again. Watch him sum up the trajectory of America’s image with world leaders right now. It ain’t pretty, folks. Should you wax nostalgic for the good old days of the Bush II administration, watch for a cameo appearance of the would-be-masseur himself. Terrific job, see?

 

“In a time of universal deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act.” — George Orwell

 

Contributed links to this posting – Bonnie Blodgett, Mark Goldberg, Allyson Harper

 

Blogger – Michael Murphy, St. Paul MN





IBI Watch 8/18/13

18 08 2013

Upside-Down, Unconscious Voyage //

Here is something that amazes me about the climate crisis. It is how quickly research and speculation morph into routine commentary on weird weather events and their cause. And then we continue on our journey of inaction.

First, the back story. Though 90-degree-plus heat is back in the near-term forecast for Minnesota, we have enjoyed weeks of slightly-below-average temperatures. This coincides with devastating heat waves in China and Europe, plus extraordinary warmth in Alaska. Until relatively recently, you hardly heard anything in the media about a specific scientific reason for these heat waves relatively far north. Then along came Rutgers University’s Jennifer Francis late in 2011 with surprising evidence. Here is an update.

Now –from just this week – a blog post from Minnesota’s Paul Huttner matter-of-factly noting the Arctic connection with a weird, lingering upside-down situation – Alaska much warmer than Minnesota. Don’t misunderstand – Huttner deserves much credit for his work, continually including climate change with his MPR commentaries. This post in particular includes a concise overview of climate change history going all the way back to Arrhenius in 1896! (Forget the denialists’ lie about scientists supposedly pushing “global cooling” in the 1970s.) But I find several things amazing here: how this science can slip into the mainstream virtually unnoticed; how so few people make this crucial connection; how we are doing so little to raise awareness and prepare for the inevitable sea rise and who knows what climate changes coming down the pike.

I have written before about Arctic amplification and its cause – melting Arctic ice. So – here is the multi-billion dollar question – with warming currently at approximately 0.8 degrees C., and at least two full degrees already inevitable, what sorts of climate disruptions will befall us as that warmth builds to that level and beyond? (Oh and by the way, ask not where all the warmth is currently going – we are mixing up a warm acid bath known as the future oceans.) Of course there will be winners – shipping over the melted Arctic will bring us all lower, lower prices – until a rusty ship capsizes or breaks apart. But hey, why worry about that?! Instead, let’s dream of the likely permanent weather changes laid out in this Climate Progress post. Is it just me, or do I see mostly losers in that crystal ball?

If we are sensible – bad bet, I know – we will recognize that we have destroyed our stable climate system with our greenhouse gases. Paul Beckwith lays that case out here, concisely and logically. Then, we will take action to halt this out-of-control experiment in atmospheric warping. I don’t expect too many will heed the call from this wild-eyed tree hugger. Instead, I suggest we follow the advice of three formerly powerful members of a nearly extinct species – environmentally responsible Republicans.

 

Feeding on Itself

A favorite tactic of climate change denial-liars is to harp on the technically true fact that it is awfully hard to pin a particular weather anomaly – say a supersized storm, a chronic drought, an off-the-charts heat wave – on manmade climate change. “Random variation” is the favored explanation. But now here comes a study that connects the two in a self-perpetuating cycle. That is, an extreme weather event itself leads to more climate change, just as climate change makes outside-the-norm weather events more likely.

 

Hand Out or Hand Up

Most of us have seen catalogs from a charitable organization called Heifer International. If you visit the site, you will see that the organization does lots of targeted good work – helping people in poor countries by giving them a chance to help themselves. I got to thinking on this group as I listened to the 8/16 This American Life. In that episode, David Kestenbaum and Jacob Goldstein made a surprisingly strong case against such well-meaning charities, and in favor of another model – simply giving money, no strings attached, to poor villagers. Here is the charity featured in the story. (It focuses on Kenya.)

This got me thinking on a news story from this week that looked at another aspect of giving – with global implications. This story – Ecuador’s decision to drill for oil in the Amazon – represents a failure of an innovative experiment. A deal had been worked out whereby the world’s richer countries would make donations to Ecuador to preserve the Yasuni national park in the Amazon, thus protecting an area with astounding biodiversity. A great idea, undone by a single, simple problem. Despite generous donations from certain famous people, contributions from the wealthier countries were skimpy or nonexistent. Surprised? Just one more stop on the road to ecological destruction, I guess.

 

ALEC from the Inside

They assumed Chris Taylor was one of them. And she was prepared to tell the truth. All they had to do was ask. But no one did. So we got an inside view of the right-wing cabal that has been working steadily to build a permanent American corporatocracy, damn the public will, likewise the common good. Moyers and Company also picked up on Taylor’s unlikely investigative report on the American Legislative Exchange Council. (Learn more here). Here is hoping that Taylor – a representative in the Wisconsin state legislature – continues her courageous search for the truth.

 

Chemical Weapons Against Our Friends

The plight of pollinators – mainly honeybees and bumblebees – has been very much in the public eye of late. And the pace, sadly, seems to be quickening. Not necessarily in public policy debates at a level where something will be done – yet – but more people are aware of colony collapse disorder. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been fingered as the main culprit, but there is news this week that is not good. Even people who are trying to do the right thing have stumbled. This petition might help. Also, if you are not represented by a corporatocratic robot congressman (I resemble that remark), you might support this bill (not recommended by ALEC).   And here is at least a tiny bit of good news – though the author at least calls out the tentative nature of this apparently new “ban” on certain pesticides.

 

Fear, Inc.

War has long been big business. Think of Country Joe McDonald’s lyrics from the Vietnam era – “Come on Wall Street, don’t be slow, Why man, this is war au-go-go, There’s plenty good money to be made, By supplying the Army with the tools of the trade,” – or the fortunes made from President W’s war of choice in Iraq – this being just the biggest of many examples.

In more recent times, though, terror about terrorism has become possibly even a bigger bonanza. I was prompted to write this little piece by two recent events. First – I recently missed the first inning of a game at Fenway Park by long, slow security lines. They were frisking people in the “express” lane. Understandable – maybe – considering the still-fresh memory of the Boston Marathon bombing last spring.

The second was a brief conversation with a neighbor about security measures. She said she had heard that the NFL was considering airport-style “porno” scanners to go with their new, unfriendly (except to plastic purveyors) transparent-bag policy. The scanner bit seems to be speculation, but these days you never know.

I mentioned that a certain former Department of Homeland Security head had earned piles of cash through government contracts for those privacy-shredding scanners. She was not aware of that example of the infamous revolving door. So I wondered how many readers might also be unaware. And then I opened my favorite muckraking site, AlterNet. It’s worse than you think.

 

The Sustainable Sun

How about something hopeful? Would you believe hydrogen fuel generated by solar energy? Fascinating.

 

Random Acts of Writing

This campaign is a project of my friend and Climate Reality Project colleague, Mary Colborn. Pass it on.

 

“I believe in God, only I spell it Nature.” ~Frank Lloyd Wright

 

Contributed links to this posting – Mary Colborn, Allyson Harper

 

Blogger – Michael Murphy, St. Paul MN





IBI Watch 8/11/13

11 08 2013

Meating the Future //

What’s for dinner matters. A lot. For proof, look no further than this week’s announcement of the latest Frankenfood breakthrough – “meat-free” beef. OK, that’s my term for a product created in the library from cattle stem cells. The price for such a feat? A cool $330,000. The fact that such resources would be committed to producing artificial beef says something about people’s deep-seated love for the stuff. But it also hints at an underlying uneasiness that has only been growing in recent years. Despite that trend, Americans eat on average 61 pounds of beef a year – more than a pound a week. Whether or not that lab-cultured goo ultimately becomes a marketable product, there are many good reasons to rethink our beef habit.

At the top of most people’s lists, for better or worse, is human health. The link between excess body weight and type 2 diabetes is well established. But recent studies link this killer – a virtual epidemic – to meat consumption itself. That is, even people who manage not to gain weight while consuming a diet including red meat still show a higher rate of diabetes than those who avoid beef. And diabetes is not all. Of all antibiotics used in the United States, an ungodly percentage – 80 percent – is fed to livestock. Some of that is used legitimately to treat infections, but the lion’s share is for one of two purposes – to encourage fast weight gain, or to keep infections from starting in the first place. And of course those infections are so much more likely because of conditions on the modern factory farm. And if that sounds like a far-away, even concocted, problem, read this. So get this – in order to keep meat prices artificially low, we are risking runaway infections as bugs evolve to shrug off our onetime miracle antibiotics.

And factory farm practices bring us to the next powerful reason to rethink meat. It’s the animals’ inhumane lives. You don’t have to be an ELF eco-terrorist or even a PETA activist to object to factory-farm practices such prison-cell-style gestation crates for sows – just one of the kind and gentle ways that bubbly bacon starts its journey to your breakfast plate. And mama pigs that can’t even turn around are just the beginning. This Humane Society site has a number of videos – just pick your favorite cruel practice.  And then there are the manure lagoons which – guess what – are poorly regulated.

The ponds of putrefying poop lead to arguably the most compelling reason of all – for many reasons, our modern, sleek, massive, industrial meat-production system is just not sustainable. Should developing countries such as India and China – where meat consumption is rapidly growing along with wealth – emulate western per capita consumption levels, we will need several new planets. There’s a lot to learn in the eleven-minute PBS video at that link. And finally, the biggest sustainability issue with meat consumption is climate change. According to the EPA, 14% of US greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture. And it is more than just the emissions, as this Worldwatch piece attests – producing meat consumes dramatically more fossil fuel than directly producing food for human consumption – grains, vegetables, fruits, etc.

A lot of money and political might are tied up in our current way of eating. As you might expect, that power will not accept sustainable change easily. The reaction is a new wave of “ag-gag” laws. These are laws – often pushed by good old ALEC (the American Legislative Exchange Council) – that enact severe penalties for whistleblowers who dare to lift the veil of secrecy from industrial farming. The July/August Mother Jones has a fine article by Ted Genoways detailing this crackdown. And note the clever positioning of these efforts – laws that purport to protect the food supply actually “protect” the inhumane, unsustainable practices from public view. Here is more on well-policed secrecy from AlterNet.

In the modern era of rapid information sharing, Big Ag has a problem, and the honchos and spinmeisters know it – most people do not want to return to the days of Upton Sinclair’s Jungle. And if people can see what goes on, they object. I think Nicholas Kristof got animal treatment just right in a recent New York Times information piece.

So for a whole range of good reasons, eating less meat is the right thing to do. And a good first step is looking at sourcing. It was the book Fast Food Nation that dissuaded me from ever again consuming factory burgers. But deciding to eat less meat is not so hard when there are great resources for food that is healthier for us and the planet. A good place to start is Michael Pollan’s advice – “Eat food, not too much, mostly plants.” And joining a community-supported agriculture (CSA) farm is always a good idea (if you could see my refrigerator, you would understand why). You don’t even have to give up meat entirely to do so.

Pay a little more, use a lot less, meet a much better future.

 

It’s Us, Says Fox News . . . Not

The climate-change-related extreme weather is almost too common to document. It’s the off-the-charts phenomena that really tell the story. There is China’s ongoing heat wave, by some measures pushing temps and humidity to the limits of human tolerance. Here’s more on that wave and its effects on the food supply.  And then we have California’s fire season, which is just beginning and already poised to set records.

One canard heard often in denialist circles in recent years is this one – “Climate change stopped in 1998.” This is related to a possible slowing in the rate of temperature rise. But all that additional carbon dioxide we spew every day – 90 million tons to be exact – has to go somewhere, and continues to have massive, spreading effects. Where will these effects go? Well, the idea of the climate reaching some plateau and staying there while we continue business-as-usual alteration of the atmosphere’s chemical makeup is ludicrous. This graphic details the consequences at various degrees of warming, and there is always the Venus Effect looming in the not-so-distant future if we really screw up. As for the spin on temperatures stabilizing, more evidence is emerging that the oceans are absorbing more of the heat. And if you think that just means more pleasant swimming off Maine, think again.

A radical organization – NOAA – spoke up this week on the causes of climate change – all seven billion of us. So, with all this evidence, why does a level of doubt survive that is sufficient to paralyze policy? Let’s be generous and give credit where credit is due. And let’s be really generous to the right-wing, corporate propaganda machine. This article flips propaganda on its head – showing the truth that would be driving policy, if that imaginary beast, the great and fearful liberal media of myth, really existed.

 

Florida – State of Caution

I have nothing against the Sunshine State. Many fine people live there. Many more are from there. It is home to the amazing Everglades, for now. But it is also the land of strange, and the stolen 2000 election is only the tip of the alligator.

First, there is news that more election shenanigans are on the way. Do you think there might be just a few minority voters who are actually citizens caught up in this drift net? Now folks, trust that shiny talking head. This has nothing, nothing I say, to do with suppressing the Democratic vote in that evenly divided state.

Then there is the environment. Massive marine creature die-off, anyone? Move along, folks. And develop more of that coastline –  dollars count most.

How about a taser death for a petty crime? Artist?! Hah! He was just painting graffiti on an old abandoned building. Viva the clean plywood!

And don’t forget stand-your-ground and Trayvon Martin.

All this really makes me want to go back and read Carl Hiaasen’s novels. But it does not make me want to visit.

 

Building Solar

Think of who pays the highest price for our fossil-fuel addiction. Hint – it’s not the consumer at the gas pump. In one hopeful sign for the future, the military is driving the bus on this. And this bus is sustainable – it is the solar energy future.

 

How a Hero is Made

This AlterNet piece concisely describes an interesting bit of right-wing history. It’s about how Paul Ryan’s hero attained that status. Beware these disciples and true believers.

 

Carpe Fava

Watch this short, entertaining video. It will get you thinking about what to do with the rest of the day, and maybe more.

 

 

“There is no such place as away.” -Chief Seattle

 

 

Contributed links to this posting – Mark Goldberg, Allyson Harper, Tammie Stadt

 

Blogger – Michael Murphy, St. Paul MN





IBI Watch 8/4/13

4 08 2013

Climate Change Sinking In //

The article that headline calls out for goes like this. “Members of the US Congress, after decades of bickering and stalling, looked at the latest evidence of a planet altered by human-generated greenhouse gases, and decided, ‘Enough is enough. It is time for decisive steps.’ In other words, the science finally ‘sank in,’ and persuaded a critical mass of legislators, without regard to ideology, to respect the scientific findings and, at long last, enact world-leading policies to protect the planet for future generations.”

If only.

Sadly, what seems to be sinking in most deeply is warmer surface temperatures. And those are making things mighty interesting for now, mighty devastating in the not-so-distant future. Here are just a couple of examples of what I am describing. First, Arctic sea ice coverage is headed down into record territory again this summer. And the result is surface lakes of meltwater on top of the sea ice. But those are now breaking through the ice, sinking in to lower ice levels. And guess what happens then. Hint – refreezing is NOT what happens – even for this temporary lake at the North Pole.  That’s right, a “lake” exactly at the northernmost spot on this rapidly warming planet. So that is melting sinking through sea ice, which is already floating and not a direct threat of rising ocean levels.

But the same thing is happening on land. In particular, Greenland. Watch this video and see the evidence that the melt is speeding up. This is not a theory of future change. It is solid scientific observation of accelerated melting.  Note the sea level rise loaded in the Greenland ice sheet – seven meters, i.e. 23 feet. That’s enough to create more than a few bad days in various coastal cities. OK, that is an understatement, as you can see.

And here is another way climate change “sinks in.” Sure, seems like a no-brainer – weather is hotter, patience wears thin, tempers flare . . . But now there is measurable evidence of that heating effect.

So what are our nation’s leaders doing to slow and stop this disaster that is playing out? Not much. Oh sure, they are busy. You can’t accuse the gerrymandered (i.e. phony GOP-majority) House of inconsistency. (BTW, I think that vote count is up to 40 now – your tax dollars hard at work, for the long haul.)

What Congress could be doing – if its members were not beholden to their favorite flavor of fossil fuel – would be to make carbon pay its way. And yes, that seems impossible right now, with the House in the hands of science deniers and the Senate always under threat of the modern, misused descendant of the filibuster whenever anything of substance is discussed. But give the president credit – he has made proposals to move the country in a positive direction, based on actions that do not require Congressional support. Of course, it is always wise to be skeptical – this AlterNet piece clearly explains that all the positive action to plan to reduce emissions bumps up against continuing extraction growth (for export and profits to Big Oil). And military adventures overseas cause massive emissions but don’t count in the US total.    New extractions exported for big profits but don’t count in emission totals.

But the climate crisis is an accelerating wave, with surprises waiting at each warming milepost on the way. For instance – formerly frozen methane making a grand and unwelcome appearance, as described in this lengthy but worthy article by Subhankar Banerjee (author of Arctic Voices).

I argue that America’s political system has evolved into a mass machine dedicated to one purpose – clearing the way for multinational corporations (which owe no allegiance to any nation) to act in a regulation-free world. Thanks to Tea Party Republicans, this is happening often by default – as explained by economist Paul Krugman. The only big-picture solution to progress on climate and so many other issues is this- get the corporate money out.

Here is one organization – the Get Money Out Foundation – dedicated to that purpose. And – as a point of hope – more people all the time are “getting it.”

Avoid Local Bias

Here in Minnesota right now, we are positively basking in calm, beautiful weather. Gentle sunshine, temperatures around or a few degrees below long-term averages, no extreme, severe storms. It almost puts manmade climate change out of your mind. It even gets people of a certain frame of mind to think, “Maybe things are not as bad as they say. Sure looks pretty normal for now.” Don’t bet on it.

How about a lingering European heat wave? Or maybe you prefer ridiculously warm temps in Alaska. Or maybe it’s the big burn out in the American West.

None of this should be surprising. Consider the long-term trend. The only thing that should surprise is our malingering lethargy on this issue, allowing the pignorant (pretend-ignorant) crowd – led by the likes of Senator Jim “Hoax” Inhofe – to hold sway.

Time to wake up.

Some are More Equal than Others

Consider how wealthy America is – per capita – compared to the rest of the world. On the three scales listed here, we are either number seven, six or eight. And when you compare us only to other modern western democracies, only Norway, Luxembourg and Switzerland surpass us. Keep that in mind as you consider three perspectives on relative well-being in our country.

First, consider this laundry list of world-leading reasons why we should think twice – or maybe eight times – before chanting “USA!”

  • Most expensive place to have a baby
  • Obesity
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Small arms ownership
  • Most people behind bars
  • Energy use per person
  • Health expenditures
  • Cocaine use

Makes me want to chant. Or maybe scream.

Second, consider where might be the best place to be born. Here is an index based on a variety of factors – GDP, literacy, life expectancy, etc. (You can see all the factors listed in one of the charts.) Remembering that the US trails only two or three western democracies in per-capita wealth, you would think we should score pretty high – at least in the top ten. But you would be wrong. What is especially troubling is that a scant 25 years ago, the results were starkly different. So what is going on here?

That would be the third factor. Recent studies have surveyed Americans on two aspects of relative wealth distribution in the country. Those are:

  • How they believe wealth is actually distributed among the public, divided into ten-percent sectors (top ten percent, second ten percent, etc.)
  • What would be a fair distribution of wealth among those sectors

This gets really interesting when compared to the way wealth is actually distributed among the ten sectors. I believe this is the best explanation – via video animation – of how this is playing out.

These trends are not good, they don’t result by accident, and they are not inevitable. I like Robert Reich’s concise video explanation, and his call for change for the better. I also like Jim Hightower’s quick audio tour of American exceptionalism, and his prescription for a better future – invest in the common good.

Framing the Debate

Heard about Sandy Hook recently? Some might say, “Sandy Hook? What’s that, a beach to visit?” Well, no, it is only the site of that awful school massacre just last December which, for a short time, generated some momentum for reasonable gun regulation. Things though have not only returned to what passes for normal, but such events seem to have spawned even more gun sales. Nothing seems to have changed in a country where a guy like this can be a police chief, make an outrageous video and be defended by powerful people as “just expressing his views on his own time.” One more good old town to stay away from.

Bill Maher makes a valid point on the weapons issue – today’s debate allows only center-to-right perspectives. While Wayne LaPierre continues to own Congress, it is always a sad but necessary exercise to check in on how many more have died in gun violence since the Sandy Hook massacre. I say we should listen to those whose lives have been shattered. And I ask – how many more Americans famous and otherwise will have to suffer the fate of the likes of Jim Brady, Gabrielle Giffords and Sami Rahamim to name just a few, before we summon the will to escape the gun lobby’s stranglehold on policy?

Big, Brave Policy Enforcers

You and I can’t imagine the courage and fortitude required to carry out the mission described at this link. This shining example of bold, decisive action will live on in the annals of government protecting the public against grave threats, under the heading “Policies are policies.”

You will read how the Department of Natural Resources did its sworn duty. But hey – considering the SWAT-team-like actions of the highly armed team makes me wonder – was this really the DNR?  After all, the federal government has a feared agency called the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF). Maybe – stay with me – the Dairy State has a new, shadowy, undercover agency called the WTF. That would be the bureau of, well, you get the idea. And maybe this quick strike was really designed to eliminate a laughing critic who dared to say – in her own way – that the state’s emperor has no clothes. Mission accomplished.

Hope for an Ethical Future

What a concept – holding the Supreme Court justices to high ethical standards. Too good to be true? Probably, but let’s dream on. Getting a bill introduced is at least a good start.

Heard this New Asian Band?

I have attended several concerts at the Minnesota Zoo – a great Twin Cities venue. But I have never seen anything like this. Mostly percussion, but it has its moments. Creates a new meaning for the term “big band.”

“There is two kinds of music, the good, and the bad. I play the good kind.”

-Louis Armstrong

 

Contributed links to this posting – Mary Colborn, Allyson Harper, Tammie Stadt

Blogger – Michael Murphy, St. Paul MN





IBI Watch 6/23/13

23 06 2013

Ugly is Beautiful //

It was just a throwaway comment from a source on an NPR story on bad travel experiences. But her entirely understandable distaste for bats speaks volumes on human attitudes about nature. If it pesters us, inconveniences us, or does not impress us as cute and cuddly, it can be damned. We can get along without it, thanks. Or so we think (if we think about it at all).

Give this lady credit – she and her cohorts did not kill the misplaced bat. And she is right about them struggling to survive – across Canada and the US, a deadly fungus has been devastating bat populations in recent years. Because the proximate cause of that wildlife crisis is “natural,” a fungal disease as opposed to an obvious man-made chemical source, it is tempting to think of the situation as something we can lay unequivocally at Mother Nature’s doorstep. But the fact is that, with the way our ever-expanding human footprint on the earth has encroached on natural habitat, stressing animal populations, even as we alter the environment with our miracle agricultural potions and greenhouse gases, in no way can we wash our hands of blame even for maladies that seem natural on first glance. And of course bats play an important role in ecosystems, with their huge appetite for insects and in some cases their penchant for pollination.

It’s the same story with snakes and turtles, which some drivers seem less inclined to avoid running over (compared to “cute” species like geese and ducks) and sharks – whose numbers worldwide are decimated by the cruel practice of “finning.” There is also remarkably little outcry over the steep, documented decline in amphibians. (It’s a good time to remember Tyrone Hayes’ sadly under-publicized research on the pesticide atrazine’s endocrine disruption in frogs – but who cares about that?)

The biggest looming extinction story right now is bees. As I have written about recently (Scroll down to “The Little Guys will be Missed”), another miracle chemical is implicated here – neonicotinoid pesticides. The evidence fingering the chemicals was good enough for the European Union’s scientists, but here in corporation-dominated America? Nah, we are not impressed. We blithely blame Mother Nature, minimize our chemical assault on the environment, and life goes on. For now.

 

Fakin’ It

I just love this story. At some level, most of us feel a bit uneasy eating overprocessed, computer-designed, machine-extruded, factory-assembly-line-produced foods. Big Food knows that, and has ways of fooling us. I remember in my youth, eating one Burger King Whopper after the other, and noticing those grill sear marks on the meat. Were they authentic? Who knows? Who cares? It sells, and isn’t that what really matters? “Naturally flavored.” Yum. Before you buy another mcburger or in fact buy any highly processed foodstuff, you really owe it to yourself to read Eric Schlosser’s excellent Fast Food Nation. And now there is another book that updates the technical wizardry used to fool us into thinking this stuff is good. And the author, Michele Simon, has a new blog that targets Big Food. Sorry, enough on that for now. I think my freezer is running low on pink slime.

 

Oh, Alberta!

The weekly extreme weather roundup is starting to remind me of the deep, dark days of the Vietnam War. The nightly news then ran a roll call of American soldiers killed in action in Southeast Asia. The news today could easily be a similar sad parade. There’s the obvious – wildfires in Colorado, floods in Germany and India, Alaska (Alaska!) baking in the tropical sun, but also the subtle – “stuck” weather and slower moving storms pounding the same areas, day after day, with flood-spawning rains.

Virtually all of this extreme weather can be traced to a single phenomenon, and – hint – it is not Mother Nature. Find out more here. I also highly recommend this five-minute video explaining the jet stream/climate change connection, posted by by Rutgers University’s Jennifer Francis.

OK, I hear you wondering, what is with the “Alberta” headline? It’s this – one of the most pressing wild weather stories this week is the devastating, deadly floods in Calgary, the Canadian province’s largest city. That province is also the site of one of the most controversial, and consequential, enterprises in our history of fossil fuel production and burning – tar sands extraction. Further expansion of that vast, destructive effort hinges on a key American decision – the Keystone XL pipeline.

That is the backdrop as Secretary of State John Kerry visits India to lecture the leaders of that  fast-developing country on cutting their greenhouse emissions (lots of cheek, there) and we anticipate President Obama’s long-awaited, legacy-critical plan for executive action on curbing greenhouse gases. Fingers eagerly crossed. Stay tuned.

 

Give the Kids the Bills . . . All of Them

Since 1980, by hook and by crook, we have rebuilt America in the image of “rugged individualism” – i.e., the Red State model. There is plenty of evidence that this is not what the people want.

For example, the system is constitutionally rigged in favor of red states. Wyoming has the same power as California in the filibuster-choked Senate. Also, a solid, obstructionist Republican majority sits in the House despite the GOP’s narrowly losing the 2012 popular congressional vote. Thank gerrymandering for that trick. And let’s not forget that the last more or less clean, legitimate presidential victory for Republicans was in 1988.

Nevertheless, we have been on the plutocratic path for 30 years. What has this brought us? Well, here we are, the richest nation in history, and we have a health care system that is the envy of whom? And our vaunted middle class – full of hard workers who, with a few good breaks to go with their toil, might be the next tycoons? Think again.

As we let our infrastructure decay, in the name of “cutting taxes for everyone,” and enable costly overseas adventures that profit only the big contractors, we are running up some massive bills. Who will pay? Why, those Millennials of course.  This fine AlterNet piece by RJ Eskow lays it all out. How will they pay for our selfishness? From cradle to grave, the author says. Let us count the ways:

  • Prenatal Nutrition
  • Early Childhood Nutrition
  • School lunches
  • Cutting education funds
  • Making college unaffordable
  • Leaving graduates drowning in debt
  • Massive unemployment
  • An increasingly inequitable, wage-stagnating economy
  • Greater fear and insecurity in old age

Gosh, who could have predicted this? Ah, well, sorry, kids. No time to wallow. Maybe you need to work harder. There is a third, low-pay, no-benefits job out there for you somewhere.

 

It’s a (Rich) Dog’s World

Heard about this vacation idea on Wait Wait Don’t Tell Me. It needs no additional introduction.

 

“Nature favors those organisms which leave the environment in better shape for their progeny to survive.” – James Lovelock

 

Contributed links to this posting – Tess Galati, Allyson Harper

 

Blogger – Michael Murphy, St. Paul MN





IBI Watch 4/28/13

28 04 2013

Self-Interest at the Top //

Bipartisanship is so rare in Congress these days, that when an example shows up, it is worth celebrating. Maybe.

When the sequester hit home for the nation’s legislators and their well-heeled constituents in the form of air traffic delays, lawmakers bravely put bickering aside for now and took care of their own comfort and convenience. And there is yet another example of cooperation in support of a worthy cause, from not very long ago at all. Somehow, this noble act escaped much public notice.

I agree with Bill Moyers – we really do have the worst Congress money can buy. And has.

 

Me First; You are Irrelevant

Disregard for suffering has reached a new low in recent days. Listen to radio host Bob Davis as he rails about his “loss of liberty” being a greater tragedy than the loss suffered by the survivors of the Newtown school massacre. And then there was the National Review accusing former Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords of political stunts for her advocacy of sensible gun regulation.  Yup, nearly dying at the hands of a homicidal maniac, then courageously fighting to recover to walk and talk makes you a target all over again in this hyper-individualistic country of ours. And why? Because she dared to point out the obvious in print – that the NRA rules Congress.

The shock jock got his comeuppance when a Sandy Hook resident offered to pay his expenses so he could deliver his tough-guy rant in person in Connecticut. Davis has not taken the offer, though he did finally apologize . . . sort of.  All this makes me wonder how low gun absolutists will stoop. This Salon piece parses the twisted logic, which basically says – if you have experienced gun violence yourself, your understandably emotion-laced perspective is not valid (and, so, you can go to hell).

What I see here is the cult of individualism run amok. This cult extends far beyond the gun regulation debate. And it has consequences, especially since it extends to letting “great men,” you know, the makers not the takers, i.e. the John Galts, do their great work without “burdensome regulation.” That includes the makers and purveyors of the Bushmaster AR-15 (the shiniest object of modern American gun lust), but also those with influence over certain major news events of recent days. (If you take the trip, you will find a great punch line at the end of that linked article.) And note that those who support this “red state model” have designs on all 50 states. That’s the brilliant example that Kansas Governor Sam Brownback thinks the rest of us government-dependent slugs will be dying to emulate.

Radical free-market libertarianism – in other words the deregulation of just about everything – affects all matters of the public good. One of the most pressing is of course my favorite issue – climate change. Unfettered burning of fossil fuels is one of the best ways to say we don’t give a damn about people near and far who suffer the consequences. And as with gun violence, manufacturing safety and public security, if we wait until we all have personal experience with the issue, we have waited too long.

Climate change in particular calls for an added layer of empathy – for future generations. That is the focus of my friend Julie Johnston’s thoughtful blog, Compassionate Climate Action, and also of newly retired NASA meteorologist James Hansen’s fine recent book. Here is a new interview that AlterNet’s Tara Lohan did with Hansen. I believe Hansen will have an even bigger impact now that he is retired and can focus on his climate activism. He gives a damn, and acts on his compassion for the planet and its people, now and into the future. So should we.

 

The Misunderestimated Decider

A few years back, a joke circulated about President W and his library. It went this way. A tragic fire broke out at the president’s library, and it destroyed both books. And he hadn’t finished coloring in one of them.

Good news – he now has a real brick-and-mortar library. Reality trumps tired jokes. The ex-decider says history will judge his presidency, and his popularity ratings have indeed climbed from the abyss to which they had sunk at the end of his two tainted terms. But everything I have seen or read suggests this new “library” is more like an alternate-reality museum of “truth,” designed to create a propaganda version of the W legacy. It’s all about “decisions,” see? Sort of reminds me of this place, with several fewer dinosaurs. But it does have some scary ghosts.

In the midst of all the memorabilia, and the “decision-making” games, there appear to be several large numbers missing – such as 1,000,000 and 3,000,000,000,000. The first number – a million – that’s one estimate of the number of Iraqi war deaths. That next number – three trillion – is a conservative estimate of the cost of the Decider’s war of choice.

Will anyone aside from his corporatist high-rolling backers look back fondly on the W years? Doubtful. On the other hand, I remember each time I post or share this blog. Its title is a crooked tip of the hat to the decider-in-chief. IBI = Ignorance-Based Initiatives, one word removed from an early W idea, “faith-based initiatives.” And one thing is certain – President W sure left us a lot to remember him by.

 

Climate Change – Local Consequences, Global Struggle

Though “global warming” is, in the long run, an accurate term – we are steadily warming the planet with our insatiable thirst for fossil-fuel energy – its immediate manifestations are more like climate chaos. That’s why I prefer the term “climate change.”

My own local environment in the middle of North America, is showing impressive climate change – not that too many people think it is worth doing something about.

For one example, winter still has not let go of us. Though temps may approach 80 degrees Sunday, the forecast for later in the week calls for three days of intermittent rain/snow mix. Despite all the “Minnesnowta” jokes, this is not a normal pattern, friends. And it is definitely not a return to some long-lost “real winter” past. It is yet another cut-off low, related to the malformed jet stream – an increasingly common phenomenon.

So climate change seems to be causing lingering cold in these parts. Yet as Paul Douglas reports, the long view is something else again. We had a record low overnight temperature last week – the first since 2004. During that same nine-year stretch, we have had 40 record highs. Hey, could this be a trend?! Douglas’ blog and Star Tribune column have become indispensable resources for those who track climate change here in the Twin Cities and elsewhere. And as for the United States in 2012, Harper’s reports 362 record high temperatures, and how many record lows? Why, not a single one.

Here is some news from the other side of the planet – China. Even those who don’t watch climate change carefully know that China’s greenhouse emissions have been growing dramatically as they regularly bring new coal plants on line. It turns out that local warming seemingly related to all that CO2 is showing up, though it won’t stay there long. This is something we all share, whether we like it or not, and whether Senator James Inhofe believes it or not. That same MPR audio ClimateCast also talks about long-term changes we are causing in the Great Lakes – less winter ice means more evaporation, and lower lake levels.

With all this chaos we have unleashed, the best thing we can do would be to dramatically reduce our greenhouse emissions. That is what Bill McKibben and his organization is dedicated to doing. Check them out and get involved. There is much to learn in McKibben’s article in the current Rolling Stone.

 

Utilities Upended?

What if solar took over the power system? This has utilities more than a little concerned.

 

“The most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don’t have any.” – Alice Walker

 

Contributed links to this posting – Allyson Harper

 

Blogger – Michael Murphy, St. Paul MN